By the time children reach the age of nine, they are moving away from concrete learning to abstract thinking. In the class children are moving away the reliance on equipment, though Montessori materials are still available, towards a more abstract exploration of the world. Here experience and thought begin to connect.
In a Montessori class, there is a focus on their development as social beings. Development is the exciting process of change, which happens in a forever changing society. The skills of being able to think, to reflect, to draw conclusions, and to act accordingly in a responsible manner are necessary characteristic to all human beings.
At this stage, children spend a lot of time carrying out their research projects. This is done in groups with children sharing the responsibility which enhances the development of communication and intra-personal skills. Research tools such as computers, books and other texts are fully utilised and the range of research topics widens as the children become interested in moral and social issues. At this age ethics and justice are the prime foci and issues relating to these often form the basis of their projects as students explore their place in the world.